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Terms of Reference (TOR)


Study on the Status of Pre- Service Teachers in Teaching Learning



Teachers have an instrumental role in enhancing the overall development of students by nurturing their interests and sharpening their instincts. Hence their professional development is indispensable for the multidimensional development of the nation.  In fact teachers are the real architects of the nation’s destiny because teachers are supposed to inculcate the values of life in the tender minds of the children and empower them with the caliber to judge what is right and what is wrong. It is by virtue of their commitment, diligence and dedication students get physically, mentally and emotionally prepared for the roles and responsibilities they need to shoulder in their lives. To guide student thinking, teachers must also understand how children’s ideas about a subject develop, and the connections between their ideas and important ideas in the discipline (Schifter & Fosnot, 1993).

Therefore, professional development of teacher can help teachers construct these understandings. Owing to the lack of knowledge, skills and efficiency required in the profession many teachers fail to shoulder their responsibilities. This is more the case of novice teachers but even the experienced teachers need training and professional revitalization. According to Ingersoll (2003) even experienced teachers confront great challenges each year, including changes in subject content, new instructional methods, advances in technology, changed laws and procedures, and student learning needs. However even after being trained many of the teachers have not been found to be able to bring about a desired change in the learning outcomes of the students.

Teacher Professional Development has been more focused for in-service teachers. But, it is equally relevant and necessary for the pre-service teacher how their professionalism has been grown up. Hence, the most of the studies have been done in the areas of in service teachers, however, no studies have been carried out for indentifying the status of pre-service teacher; how many have been produced for basic and secondary level and out of them how many are in the teacher service. Have they professionally been nurtured in pre-service phase. It need to be taken that the lack of expertise and professionalism on the part of the teachers jeopardizes the educational future of the entire nation because it is teachers who have a pivotal role in educating the new generation and in enabling them to keep pace with the developments taking place in the modern competitive world. So, NCE Nepal will carry out a research on the effectiveness of the pre-service teachers in the career of teacher profession.

Hence, to carry out a research on the effectiveness of the pre-service teachers in the career of teacher profession as a part of NCE-Nepal activities, this Terms of Reference(TOR) has been prepared.

Objectives of Pre- Service Teachers Analysis:

The study aims to identify the status of the pre-service teachers and the existing curriculum of teacher educators in relation to contemporary education of Nepal. More specifically the study attempts:

  • To identify the quantitative status of the teachers produced for the different levels i.e. basic and secondary.
  • To examine the compatibility of the curriculum of teacher educators in relation to the teaching- learning environment.
  • To assess the contemporary teaching- learning phenomena and its effectiveness.

The study will be carried out to answers the following questions:

  • How many teachers have been produced for the different levels i.e. basic and secondary and out of them how many are actually in the service?
  • Have the teachers professionally been nurtured in the pre- service phase?
  • Is the curriculum of teacher educators compatible with the teaching- learning environment of Nepal?
  • Does the reason behind low quality of education in Nepal is only due to the systemic deficiencies in the Nepali Schools or the pre- service teachers training also matters in it?
  • What are the gaps in the contemporary knowledge and skills on pedagogical practices?



Expected Outcomes

  1. Status of the teachers produced via Teachers Professional Development will be obtained and analyzed.
  2. The compatibility between the teaching skills provided by the curriculum of teacher educators and the contemporary knowledge and skills on actual pedagogical practices will be identified.
  3. Strategies will be developed to influence the education actors particularly the curriculum designers, teacher educators, policy makers and public school teachers for the better and compatible curriculum design.
  4. A knowledge product will be developed for future references
  5. Evidence will be generated for campaigning actions.


Moreover, the consultant will apply the following methodologies;


  1. Review of secondary data
  2. Observation
  3. Interview
  4. Focus Group Discussion


The Scope of work

  • Develop and share research concept note, plan and methodology
  • Develop questionnaires, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) guidelines, and design other required forms and formats
  • Review of the quantitative status of university students,
  • Appraise the existing curriculum of teacher educators and explore and assess existing policies/plans/programs addressed for the professional development of pre-service teachers and its impact on the quality education
  • Conduct consultative meeting with NCE Nepal
  • Organize sharing workshop for data validation
  • Prepare draft report and share with NCE Nepal including consortium team
  • Finalize the report in the published forms incorporating the feedbacks from consortium


Responsibilities of the Consultant

The consultant shall be responsible for the following duties and responsibilities;

  • Extensive Review of the curriculum of the teacher educators in order to find out the practices on the pedagogical practices.
  • Review of the Review of the relevant literatures for the better understanding of the contemporary pedagogy phenomena.
  • Conduct a comprehensive study based on the Terms of Reference (ToR).
  • Share the draft report with NCE Nepal and incorporate the feedbacks.
  • Submit a final quality study report to NCE Nepal.
  • Submit a set of recommendation for NCE Nepal to advance and support its agenda of Teachers development and management.



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